Indlela Entsha Ebheke Ekuxilongweni Okusheshayo kwe-COVID-19 Igandaywe Ngegolide

Ibhalwe ngu umhleli

Abacwaningi basebenzise ama-nanoparticles egolide ukwenza inkundla entsha yokuxilonga yamangqamuzana enciphisa kakhulu isikhathi esidingekayo sokutholwa kwe-COVID-19.

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Ukusabalala okusheshayo kwe-COVID-19, isifo esidalwa yigciwane le-SARS-CoV-2, kudale inkinga yezempilo yomphakathi emhlabeni jikelele. Ukutholwa kwe-COVID-19 kusenesikhathi kanye nokuhlukaniswa kubalulekile ekulawuleni ukudluliswa kwezifo kanye nokuvikela abantu abasengozini. Izinga lamanje lokuxilongwa kwe-COVID-19 i-reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), indlela lapho izakhi zofuzo zegciwane zitholwa ngemva komjikelezo wokuphindaphindeka wokukhulisa. Kodwa-ke, le ndlela idla isikhathi, idala ukusilela emuva kokuhlola kuzo zonke izikhungo zokuxilonga futhi okuholela ekuxilongweni okubambezelekile.      

Ocwaningweni lwakamuva olushicilelwe ku-Biosensors kanye ne-Bioelectronics, abacwaningi abavela e-Korea nase-China bethule inkundla entsha esekwe ku-nanotechnology engafinyeza isikhathi esidingekayo sokuxilongwa kwe-COVID-19. Inkundla yabo yokuhlonza i-Raman scattering (SERS) -PCR ethuthukisiwe—elungiselelwe kusetshenziswa ama-nanoparticles egolide (AuNPs) emigodini ye-Au 'nanodimple' substrates (AuNDSs)—ingathola izakhi zofuzo zegciwane ngemva kwemijikelezo engu-8 kuphela yokukhulisa. Lokho cishe ingxenye eyodwa kwezintathu yenombolo edingekayo nge-RT-PCR evamile.

“I-RT-PCR evamile isekelwe ekutholeni amasiginali e-fluorescence, ngakho amahora angu-3–4 ayadingeka ukuze kutholakale i-SARS-CoV-2. Lesi sivinini asanele uma kucatshangelwa ukuthi i-COVID-19 ibhebhetheka ngokushesha kangakanani. Besifuna ukuthola indlela yokusika lesi sikhathi okungenani ngesigamu,” kusho uProf. Jaebum Choo, echaza isisusa socwaningo. Ngenhlanhla, impendulo yayingekho kude kakhulu. Ocwaningweni lwangaphambilini olwanyatheliswa ngo-2021, ithimba likaProf. Choo lenze inkundla yokuthola inoveli lapho amasiginali we-SERS azwela kakhulu akhiqizwa ama-AuNP ahlelwe ngendlela efanayo emigodini yama-AuNDS ngokusebenzisa inqubo ebizwa nge-DNA hybridization. Ngokusekelwe kulokhu okutholwe ngaphambilini, uProf. Choo nethimba lakhe bakha inkundla ye-SERS-PCR ye-COVID-19.

Ukuhlolwa okusanda kuthuthukiswa kwe-SERS-PCR kusebenzisa amasiginali we-SERS ukuthola “i-DNA yebhuloho”—izinqubo ezincane ze-DNA eziphuka kancane lapho kukhona izakhi zofuzo zegciwane. Ngakho-ke, kumasampuli avela ezigulini ezine-COVID-19, ukugcwala kwe-DNA yebhuloho (ngakho-ke isignali ye-SERS) kwehla ngokuqhubekayo ngemijikelezo ye-PCR eqhubekayo. Ngokuphambene, lapho i-SARS-CoV-2 ingekho, isignali ye-SERS ihlala ingashintshile.

Ithimba lihlole ukusebenza kahle kohlelo lwalo lisebenzisa omaka ababili abamele i-SARS-CoV-2, okuyi-envelope protein (E) kanye ne-RNA encike ku-RNA polymerase (RdRp) yofuzo ye-SARS-CoV-2. Nakuba imijikelezo engu-25 yayidingeka ukuze kutholwe okusekelwe ku-RT-PCR, inkundla ye-SERS-PCR esekelwe ku-AuNDS yayidinga imijikelezo engu-8 kuphela, enciphisa kakhulu ubude besikhathi sokuhlola. “Nakuba imiphumela yethu ingeyokuqala, ihlinzeka ngobufakazi bomqondo obubalulekile bokufaneleka kwe-SERS-PCR njengendlela yokuxilonga. Indlela yethu ye-SERS-PCR esekelwe ku-AuNDS iyinkundla entsha ethembisayo yokuxilonga yamangqamuzana engafinyeza kakhulu isikhathi esidingekayo sokutholwa kofuzo uma siqhathaniswa nezindlela ezivamile ze-RT-PCR. Lo modeli unganwetshwa ngokuqhubekayo ngokuhlanganisa isampula esizenzakalelayo ukuze kwakhiwe uhlelo lokuxilonga lwamangqamuzana esizukulwane esilandelayo,” kuchaza uProf. Choo.

Ngempela, i-SERS-PCR ingaba yithuluzi elibalulekile kunqolobane yethu yokulwa nobhubhane lwe-COVID-19. Kungase futhi kudale ukushintsha kwepharadigm emkhakheni wokuxilongwa kwamangqamuzana, kuguqule indlela esihlonza ngayo izifo ezithathelwanayo futhi sibhekane nobhadane lwesikhathi esizayo.

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