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Umhlahlandlela Ophelele Embonini Yabahlengikazi eLatin America

Umhlahlandlela Ophelele Embonini Yabahlengikazi eLatin America
I-Latin America Nursing
Ibhalwe ngu umhleli

ILatin America ibone ukukhula nentuthuko enkulu emphakathini eminyakeni engama-50 edlule, iletha izimboni nezimakethe eziphelele emnothweni wama-20 kanye nokuncika okungu-12 okwakha lesi sifunda esihlukahlukene. Ubuhlengikazi ngomunye umkhakha obambe iqhaza elibalulekile ekuthuthukiseni ukunakekelwa kwezokwelapha kule ngxenye yomhlaba. Ababelethisi ngabahlengikazi abanikeza ukunakekelwa kokubelethisa kwabesifazane abakhulelwe nabancelisayo. Ngakho-ke, imikhakha yobuhlengikazi bemitholampilo kanye nokubelethisa ihlobene kakhulu futhi ochwepheshe abaningi bakhetha ukuba ngumhlengikazi-umbelethisi oqinisekisiwe (CNM) ukuze babe nenketho yokwenza yomibili le misebenzi.

Ngeshwa, ukwenza ucwaningo embonini yabahlengikazi yaseLatin America kungaholela phansi emgodini wonogwaja wemibiko nezifundo ezisemthethweni ngaphandle kokuqondiswa noma isiphetho esicacile. Kulo mhlahlandlela owenziwe lula, sizobheka ezinye zezibalo namaqiniso anokuqonda okuchaza isimo samanje sezimboni zabahlengikazi nababelethisi eLatin America:

Izikole Eziku-inthanethi Ziya Zithandwa Kakhulu Abahlengikazi Nababelethisi Abasha

Njengoba kubonakala ngokubheka noma iyiphi imephu yesathelayithi ehlehlisiwe, kunezindawo eziningi ezisemaphandleni ezinkulu eLatin America. Iningi lalawa madolobha namadolobhana awanawo amanyuvesi endawo noma izinhlelo zeziqu zabahlengikazi. Vele, ngezingane ezintsha ezingaba ngu-30,000 XNUMX ezizalwa eLatin America nsuku zonke, isidingo esiqhubekayo sokuqeqeshwa kwababelethisi naso siyisici. Iningi labafundi abangahlali eduze neyunivesithi abanakho okunye ngaphandle kokuya ku- isikole sokubelethisa online noma uhlelo lobuhlengikazi ukuthola iziqinisekiso ezidingekayo ukuqala imisebenzi yabo.

Kunezikole Zabahlengikazi ezingaphezu kwe-1200 eLatin America

Ngokombiko oshicilelwe yiWorld Health Organisation (WHO), zingaphezu kuka-1280 izikole zabahlengikazi esezitholakele kulo lonke elaseLatin America naseCaribbean. Lokho kungabonakala njengokuningi, kepha uma ucabanga iqiniso lokuthi lesi sifunda sinabantu abangaphezu kwezigidi ezingama-630 bebonke, lokho kusho ukuthi cishe kunohlelo olulodwa lwesikole sabahlengikazi kubantu abayisigamu sesigidi. Lezi zikole zigxile kakhulu emadolobheni kanye nasemadolobheni amakhulu, futhi ngenxa yalokho isifunda esiningi asikwazi ukufinyelela kalula ezikoleni zasendaweni.

Iningi Lesifunda Libhekene Nokusweleka Kobuhlengikazi

Yize kunamanye amazwe eLatin America anabahlengikazi abaningi kunalokho okudingekayo, iningi libhekene nokuphikisana - nokushoda okubanzi okulindeleke ukuthi kuqhubeke eminye iminyaka engu-5-10. Lokhu kushiwo ngenhla kwezikole zabahlengikazi ezigunyaziwe ezindaweni eziningi kwenza kungabi lula ukuthi abafundi bakulezo zindawo bake bacabange ukuthi bangaba umhlengikazi. Ngisho nasemazweni lapho imfundo inikezwe izakhamizi mahhala, kusenezindleko nezithiyo zokuba ngumhlengikazi noma umbelethisi.

Ukuthatha umhlalaphansi kwezingane ezisencane kuyingxenye yenkinga

Uma kukhulunywa ngokukhomba imbangela eyinhloko yokushoda kwabahlengikazi okuqhubekayo, ukuthatha umhlalaphansi okwandayo kwesizukulwane sezingane kungaba nomphumela ofanayo kunokungafani kobulili embonini yonke. Leli qembu leminyaka yobudala, elisukela eminyakeni engama-55-75 ubudala, limelela ingxenye ekhulayo yabasebenzi babahlengikazi nababelethisi eLatin America. Njengoba laba bantu bethatha umhlalaphansi, kudingeka igagasi elisha labafundi abazongena esikhundleni sabo. Inkinga ukuthi, amazinga okuqeqeshwa awahambisani nezidingo zabasebenzi ezindaweni eziningi. Futhi, noma ngabe ubunenani elilinganayo labafundi abasha abakulungele ukugcwalisa izicathulo zabantwana abathatha umhlalaphansi, kungaba nzima kubo ukuthi baqashwe bengenalo ulwazi.

Ukufuduka Kwabahlengikazi Olunye Udaba

Abahlengikazi nababelethisi abaningi abagunyaziwe abahlala futhi basebenze eLatin America banamaphupho okuthuthela kwamanye amazwe athuthukile lapho bengathola khona amaholo aphezulu futhi bazuze emnothweni oqinile. Lesi isifiso esiqondakalayo sokuba naso njengomuntu ngamunye, kepha ngezinga elikhulu kubi kubuhlengikazi baseLatin America ngoba unyaka nonyaka izinkulungwane zabahlengikazi zikhetha ukuthuthela kwelinye izwe, zishiya izikhala eziningi nakakhulu mayelana nokushoda okubhekene namazwe anjengeChile neBolivia. Ngokudabukisayo, ayikho neze indlela yokuthi la mazwe ahlinzeke ngesikhuthazo kubasebenzi babo abanamakhono nabanolwazi ukuba bahlale, ngakho-ke lokhu kuzoqhubeka nokuba yinto.

Ukungalingani kobulili kulandela umkhuba womhlaba jikelele

Umkhakha wabahlengikazi uhlala kakhulu kubantu besifazane emhlabeni wonke futhi lo mkhuba uyabonakala naseLatin America, lapho iningi labahlengikazi kungabantu besifazane. Ngaphandle kokuthi iLatin America iyindawo yokubekezelelana kwamasiko, izwe alikaze likwazi ukuzamazamisa imicabango yabantu ethi amadoda kufanele abe ngodokotela kanti abesifazane kufanele babe ngabahlengikazi. Ukuchitha nokudlulela ngale kwalombono wakudala kungasiza ekunciphiseni ubunzima bokushoda kwabahlengikazi emhlabeni jikelele.

Izibalo Eziyinhloko Zobuhlengikazi zasePeru

Ngokufanelekile, sizoqala ukuhlola kwethu kwizibalo ezifanele zezwe ngalinye laseLatin America ngokubuka konke ngomkhakha wabahlengikazi wasePeru. Amazwe amaningi abhekene nokushoda kwabahlengikazi, kepha iPeru kungenzeka ikwazi ukugcwalisa izikhala kulo mkhakha ngo-2020. Ngaleso sikhathi, abalingisi ababelethisiwe abalinganiselwa kuma-66% kanye nama-74% abahlengikazi bazobe sebeqashiwe. Kunabasebenzi bezokwelapha abacishe babe ngama-23 kubantu abangu-10,000 XNUMX, okwenza iPeru ibe ngelinye lamazwe aseLatin America anabantu abasebenza kakhulu emkhakheni wezokunakekelwa kwempilo. Kodwa-ke, iningi labahlengikazi nabahlengikazi ababelethisile ePeruvia bangaba nobunzima bokuqashwa phakathi neminyaka emibili yokuqala yomsebenzi wabo.

Izibalo Zabahlengikazi Abakhiye baseColombia

EColombia, kunabahlengikazi ababalelwa kwabayisithupha kuphela kubantu abayi-6 10,000. Yize kunaleso sibalo, isilinganiso seminyaka yokuphila kwabantu ezweni cishe singama-79. Njengoba kunabantu ababalelwa ezigidini ezingama-50, siyabona ukuthi njengamanje kunabahlengikazi ababalelwa ku-30,000 abaqashiwe eColumbia. Isilinganiso somholo womhlengikazi eColombia singama-29,000,000 COP, asebenza cishe ku-14,000 COP ngehora. Ukubeka lokho ngombono, lokho kungama- $ 4 USD ngehora. Vele, ngemiholo efana naleyo, kunengqondo ukuthi abahlengikazi baseColombia babe namaphupho okuthuthela ezweni lapho umholo wehora uyi-5x leyo mali.

Izibalo Eziyinhloko Zobuhlengikazi zaseBrazil

IBrazil inabahlengikazi ababalelwa kwabane kubahlali abayizi-4 10,000 - okuyinombolo ephansi kakhulu yale metric futhi ekhombisa ukushoda okusobala. Ngabantu ababalelwa ezigidini ezingama-209, lokho kusho ukuthi kukhona abahlengikazi ababalelwa ku-80,000 abasebenza eBrazil njengamanje. Kodwa-ke, njengoba izwe linendawo enkulu yomhlaba enezindawo eziningi zasemakhaya, kunezindawo eziningi zasemaphandleni eBrazil lapho kunzima noma kungenzeki ukufinyelela ekutholeni usizo lwezempilo noma umbelethisi. Ngisho nasemadolobheni amakhulu afana neRio de Janeiro kuke kwaba nezigameko lapho umnyango wezempilo kuleli ubudinga khona ukuqasha abasebenzi bezokwelapha ngokuphuthumayo ngenxa yezinkinga zezimali ezishiye izibhedlela nemitholampilo kunabasebenzi abaswele.

Izibalo Zabahlengikazi Abakhiye base-Argentina

Ngabahlengikazi ababalelwa kwabangu-4 kubantu abayi-1,000 30, i-Argentina ifakiwe ohlwini lwamazwe angama-44 aphezulu anenkinga yokushoda kwabahlengikazi. Ezweni elinabantu abangaphezu kwezigidi ezingama-18,000, kunabahlengikazi ababalelwa ku-XNUMX kuphela. Kuyathakazelisa ukuphawula ukuthi leli lizwe laziwa ngokutholakala kwensalela yodokotela, ngakho-ke kunokushoda okungajwayelekile futhi okuyingqayizivele lapho ngoba izibhedlela zinodokotela abangaphezu kwenele kodwa abanabahlengikazi abenele. Kuyathakazelisa ukuthi ukushoda kwabahlengikazi e-Argentina kucishe kuphindwe kabili kunalokho okwakuyiminyaka engamashumi amabili edlule, futhi abahlaziyi abaningi basola ukuthi lokhu kuba kubi kakhulu kubangelwa ukufudukela kwamanye amazwe lapho amakhono ethola amaholo aphezulu.

Izibalo Eziyinhloko Zobuhlengikazi zaseBolivia

IBolivia inenani labantu ababalelwa ezigidini eziyi-11 futhi kukhona umhlengikazi cishe oyedwa kubahlali abayinkulungwane. Lokho kusho ukuthi kunabahlengikazi ababalelwa ku-1 kuphela ezweni lonke. Lokhu kubonisa ukushoda kwabahlengikazi okubi kakhulu eLatin America, iqiniso elingamangalisi lapho ubona ukuthi iBolivia sekuyisikhathi eside ibalwa njengelinye lamazwe ampofu kakhulu emhlabeni. Ubunzima bezomnotho balesi sifunda buyenza ibe yindawo engathandeki lapho abahlengikazi nababelethisi abanamakhono okuhlala khona ngoba cishe noma iliphi izwe linikela ngemali eyengeziwe ngomsebenzi ofanayo.

Izibalo Eziyinhloko Zabahlengikazi baseChile

Abantu abaningi bayamangala ukuthola ukuthi kunenkinga yokushoda kwabahlengikazi eChile, njengoba kwaziwa kabanzi ukuthi uhulumeni usanda kwenza imfundo itholakale ngokukhululeka kuzo zonke izakhamizi. Kodwa-ke, ngamathuba amaningi kangaka omsebenzi ongakhetha kuwo, ubuhlengikazi nokubelethisa baba yimisebenzi engathandeki. Izwe linabantu abangaphezu kuka-18,000,000 kanti kunabahlengikazi abangu-0.145 kuphela kubahlali abayi-1000. Lokho kungesinye sezibalo zabahlengikazi ezisezingeni eliphansi kunawo wonke emhlabeni, futhi ngaphandle kokuthi umsebenzi wenziwe inketho ekhanga kakhulu kulabo abazoba abafundi, akunakwenzeka ukuthi ukushoda kuzoxazululwa nganoma yisiphi isikhathi maduzane.

Izibalo Zobuhlengikazi zase-Ecuador

Ukushoda kwabahlengikazi e-Ecuador akukubi kangako njengakwamanye amazwe aseLatin America, enabahlengikazi ababalelwa kwababili kubahlali abangu-2. Isizwe sibone ukukhula okukhulu esibalweni sabahlengikazi abasha abavela phakathi kweminyaka ka-1000 kanye no-1998, sabona ukwanda kusuka ku-2008 / 5 kuya ngaphezu kuka-10,000 / 18 ngaleso sikhathi. Kodwa-ke, i-Ecuador inenani eliphezulu kakhulu labaphuma ezikoleni zamabanga aphakeme futhi amaphesenti amancane kakhulu wabantu abazofunda eyunivesithi, ngakho-ke kubonakala kungenakwenzeka ukuthi umkhakha wabahlengikazi uzoqhubeka nomkhuba wawo wokukhuphuka ngaphezu kwegagasi labantwana abathatha umhlalaphansi abazoshiya abasebenzi phakathi kuka-10,000-2020.

Izibalo zabahlengikazi eGuatemala

IGuatemala ingesinye isifunda saseLatin America esinenani eliphansi kakhulu labahlengikazi ngomuntu ngamunye elingu-0.864 kuphela kubantu abangu-1,000 14,000,000. Njengoba kunabantu abangaphezu kwe-60 kanye nomnotho onesikhala esikhulu kakhulu somnotho phakathi kwezakhamizi zayo ezihlupheka kakhulu futhi ezicebe kakhulu, iGuatemala iswele kakhulu abahlengikazi nababelethisi abasha. Naphezu kokuba nomnotho omkhulu kunayo yonke eMelika Ephakathi, leli lizwe lapho abantu abangaphezu kwama-XNUMX% bephila ngobumpofu. Ngenkathi imfundo imahhala kuleli, izinto ezidingekayo ukuqedela isikole zisabiza isakhamuzi esijwayelekile, okudala esinye isithiyo kulabo abazoba ngabafundi bezokwelapha.

Izibalo Zobuhlengikazi zaseMexico

Akunangqondo ukumboza imboni yabahlengikazi baseLatin America ngaphandle kokuxoxa ngesimo esikhona eMexico. Muva nje uhulumeni wezwe ubike ukuthi kudingeka abanye abahlengikazi abangama-255,000 ukuze kuhlangatshezwane nezinkombandlela ze-World Health Organisation zokuba nabahlengikazi abayisithupha kubantu abangu-6 100,000. Okwamanje, iMexico inabahlengikazi abalinganiselwa kwabane kuphela kwabangu-4 100,000, abanabahlengikazi ababalelwa cishe isigamu sesigidi abasebenza kubantu abangaphezu kwezigidi eziyi-129. Izindawo ezinenkinga yokushoda kwabahlengikazi eMexico zibandakanya iVeracruz, Michoacan, Queratero, nePuebla.

Izibalo Zobuhlengikazi ZaseCaribbean

Ekugcineni, njengoba iCaribbean neLatin America zihlanganiswa ndawonye esifundeni esifanayo, kulungile ukuxoxa ngezibalo zale ndawo. Kunabahlengikazi ababalelwa ku-1.25 kubantu abangu-1,000 8,000 eCaribbean ekhuluma isiNgisi. Lokho kuhumusha abahlengikazi ababalelwa ku-2006 abasebenza kule ndawo. Kusukela ngo-3,300, isidingo esingafinyelelwanga sabahlengikazi eCaribbean sasingu-2025 10,000. Ngo-5, lelo nani kulindeleke ukuthi lifinyelele ku-2,000. Njalo eminyakeni emi-XNUMX, abahlengikazi abacishe babe ngu-XNUMX XNUMX bashiya iCaribbean bayothuthela emazweni akhokha kakhulu. Lesi sibalo sigcizelela inkinga ejwayelekile emazweni amaningi aseLatin America - ukungakwazi ukugcina abasebenzi babo bezokwelapha ababaluleke kakhulu ekuthutheleni.

Kungani Abafundi Bekhetha Izinhlelo Eziku-inthanethi Ezikoleni Ezingaxhunyiwe Ku-inthanethi

Ngokufunda izibalo nokuqonda okungenhla, uqala ukubona isithombe esicacile sesifunda lapho ukuphishekela umsebenzi wokuba ngumhlengikazi kungabonakali njalo kuyindlela yokuzuzisa kakhulu yomsebenzi. Izitshudeni eziningi zikhetha umzila oku-inthanethi ngoba ubanikeza amandla okugunyazwa yiyunivesithi yangaphandle. Ukuqinisekiswa okunikezwa izikole ezizinze emazweni athuthukile kukhethwa kakhulu.

I-degree evela eyunivesithi esekwe e-US noma yase-Europe ingabukeka ingcono esicelweni somsebenzi esizayo kuneziqu zabahlengikazi ezitholwe eyunivesithi encane noma engacacile eseCentral noma South America. Leyo nto iyodwa ivame ukugqugquzela abafundi abanesifiso sokuphishekela imfundo phesheya noma ngesikhungo sokufunda amabanga aku-inthanethi. Ekuphetheni, izinhlelo ze-online degree zibonakala zinikeza udumo olukhulu kunezikole ezingaxhunyiwe kwi-Latin American, ezihumusha amathuba amaningi okufuduka namathuba okuthuthuka emsebenzini.

 

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