I-Boeing Banks Embuthweni Wezempi wase-US ngemuva kwe-B737 Max Failure

UPaulHudson
PaulHudson, FlyersRights.org

I-Boeing yayihamba phambili lapho phakathi neminyaka eyi-100 edlule, abantu besuka ekuhambeni eMhlabeni bahamba enyangeni. Basuka ekugibeleni amahhashi baya ezindizeni ezindizayo. Eminyakeni eyishumi ngayinye, ubuchwepheshe bezindiza beqa omunye umngcele, futhi lapho bewela, umhlaba washintsha.

Imbangi kaBoeing Airbus ezinze eJalimane naseFrance kungenzeka ukuthi ithatha ukwehluleka kwe-Boeing kanye nesimo sengqondo senkampani sokwakha amajezi aphephile abagibeli aya ebhange, ikakhulukazi ngemva kokuthuthela kukaBoeing endaweni yasePentagon.

I-Boeing inomlando oziqhenyayo wokukhiqiza izindiza zabagibeli bezentengiselwano noma impahla, ezokuvikela, indawo, ngisho nezikebhe ezindizayo.

Ngo-2023 uBoeing wathuthela e-Arlington, eVirginia, indawo enkulu yaseWashington DC. Kubonakala kunesizathu esisobala kakhulu ngemuva kwalokhu kuhamba - iPentagon. I-US Military iyikhasimende elikhulu kakhulu le-Boeing futhi ikomkhulu labo liseWashington DC.

Usongo lwempi ludinga izindiza zezempi eziningi ezintsha

Usongo lomhlaba wonke olukhula ngokushesha lwempi kanye nomhlaba ongaphephile kudinga ukuthuthukiswa okusheshayo kwemishini yezempi kuhlanganise nezindiza zempi.

Ingabe i-Boeing isizoyeka ukusebenzisa izindiza zabagibeli?

Kungakhathaliseki ukuthi inkampani ihlela ukuyeka ukwakha amajethi abagibeli aphephile, noma uma ngemva kokukhungatheka okungaka into enenzuzo iwukugxila engxenyeni yebhizinisi yezokuvikela neyomkhathi, ukuqagela okunjalo kungase kube iqiniso elibi kumkhiqizi wendiza omkhulu kunawo wonke. Umhlaba.

Okwengeza isizathu salolu shintsho kungase kube ukukhungatheka, okusalindile kwezenzo zobugebengu zokunqanda ukubeka inzuzo phezu kokuphepha noma inzuzo engcono kunonembeza ngemva kokuba abantu abangu-346 besanda kubulawa ezingozini ezimbili ezingenasidingo ze-Boeing 737 Max.

I-Boeing 737, eyaqala ukwaziwa ngokuthi “i-City Jet” yamabanga amafushane namaphakathi, eyakhiwa ngo-60′ yayingesinye sezindiza eziphumelela kakhulu emhlabeni. Lokhu kuqhubeke kwaze kwaba yizingozi ezimbili ezashona ngo-2018 nango-2019, ezabulala abantu abangama-346.

Inguqulo eyinkinga ye-B737 yayibizwa nge-B737- Max ngenxa yenguqulo yayo eyandisiwe. Izinketho zedizayini ze-Boeing kanye nobunzima bekhwalithi cishe kube nomthelela esimweni esibucayi samanje sokuthi inkampani ibheke imithombo yemali engenayo engcono - Ibutho Lezempi Lase-United States, kanye nabalingani balo emhlabeni jikelele.

Iqiniso lamanje le-geo-politiki yisimo esifanelekile sokuhlelwa kabusha okunjalo.

Eminyakeni emithathu edlule i-Boeing Company (i-Boeing) yayivumelene noMnyango Wezobulungiswa wase-U.S. ukuxazulula icala lobugebengu elihlobene netulo lokuqola i-Federal A.I-viation Administration I-Aircraft Evaluation Group (FAA AEG) mayelana nokuhlolwa kwe-FAA AEG yendiza ye-Boeing 737 MAX.

Afngemuva kwezingozi ezimbili zeBoeing 737 Max e-Indonesia nase-Ethiopia, kwavela ukuthi kwakukhona ukushiyeka ekunqandeni ukuthola lesi sitifiketi sendiza.

Lokhu kwaholela emacaleni omphakathi nawobugebengu. Abaphathi be-Boeing baphunyuke kuphela emacaleni obugebengu ngokuvumelana ngesivumelwano esihlehlisiwe noMnyango Wezobulungiswa wase-US esizohoxiswa amacala obugebengu uma i-Boeing ibikwazi ukusebenza ngaphandle kokuba nezinye izinkinga zokuphepha ngemva kwalokhu iminyaka.

Kwathatha iminyaka engaphansi kwemithathu ukuthi kwenzeke into enkulu elandelayo.

Isivumelwano sokuthi i-Boeing igweme ukushushiswa ngobugebengu noMnyango Wezobulungiswa wase-US kanye ne-Boeing sisayinwe ngoJanuwari 7, 2021.

NgoJanuwari 5, 2024, indiza ye-Alaska Airlines yacishe yaphahlazeka endizeni isuka e-Portland, NOMA iya e-Ontario, CA ngemuva kokuwa komnyango wezimo eziphuthumayo. Isizathu ngemuva kwaso singase sihlanganise ukwephulwa kwalesi sivumelwano esihlehlisiwe.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, kwavela ukushiyeka okuyingozi nakakhulu, ngokunokwenzeka kwagwema izenzakalo ezengeziwe noma ukuphahlazeka okungenzeka. Uma kucatshangelwa i-Boeing 737 MAX nayo yasetshenziswa isikhathi eside Amahora angu-5 1/2 izindiza ezihamba phezu kwamanzi eziya eHawaii, umbuzo wabuzwa ukuthi ukundiza i-Alaska Airlines nge-B737-Max isuka e-Honolulu iya eCalifornia, e-Oregon, noma e-Washington State kwakuyisinqumo esiyingozi.

Ingxoxo Yevidiyo ye-eTN Nochwepheshe:
Ingabe Izindiza ze-Boeing B737 Max zisaphephile Ukundiza?

Engxoxweni ngevidiyo neBreaking News Show, uPaul Hudson noGregory Travis abavela eblackbeights.org wachaza, kungani i-Boeing ingase ingahlali ibeka ukuphepha ngaphambi kwenzuzo, futhi yabelana ngesizinda sokuthi kungani inkampani ingase ikhathalele kakhulu uhlangothi lwayo lwezempi lwebhizinisi.

Lolu ulwazi olushicilelwe Ihhovisi Lezindaba Zomphakathi loMnyango Wezobulungiswa wase-U.S.

The Inkampani ye-Boeing (Boeing) uvumelene noMnyango Wezobulungiswa ukuthi uxazulule icala lobugebengu elihlobene netulo lokukhwabanisela Iqembu Lokuhlola Indiza Lezindiza Lezindiza Le-Federal Aviation (FAA AEG) mayelana nokuhlola kwe-FAA AEG kwendiza ye-Boeing 737 MAX.

I-Boeing, inkampani yamazwe ngamazwe ezinze e-U.S. eklama, ikhiqiza, futhi idayisela izinkampani zezindiza izindiza zezentengiselwano emhlabeni wonke, yenza isivumelwano sokushushiswa esihlehlisiwe (i-DPA) mayelana nolwazi lobugebengu olufakwe namuhla eNyakatho Yesifunda saseTexas.

Ulwazi lobugebengu luthwesa inkampani icala elilodwa lokwakha uzungu lokuqola i-United States. Ngaphansi kwemigomo ye-DPA, i-Boeing izokhokha isamba semali yobugebengu engaphezu kwezigidigidi ezingu-2.5 zamaRandi, okuhlanganisa inhlawulo yemali yobugebengu engu-$243.6 wezigidi, izinkokhelo zesinxephezelo kumakhasimende endiza ye-Boeing i-737 MAX engu-$1.77 wezigidigidi, kanye nokusungulwa kokuphahlazeka kwamaRandi ayizigidi ezingu-500. -abahlomuli bezisulu baxhasa ngemali izindlalifa, izihlobo, kanye nabahlomuli abasemthethweni babagibeli abangu-346 abashona engozini ye-Boeing 737 MAX ye-Lion Air Flight 610 kanye ne-Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302.

“Izingozi ezidabukisayo ze-Lion Air Flight 610 kanye ne-Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302 zidalule ukuziphatha okukhohlisayo nokukhohlisayo kwabasebenzi benkampani eyodwa ehamba phambili emhlabeni yabakhiqizi bezindiza zezentengiselwano,” kusho Ibamba Lomsizi Lommeli-Jikelele u-David P. Burns Wophiko Lwezobugebengu Lomnyango Wezobulungiswa.

“Abasebenzi bakwa-Boeing bakhethe indlela yokwenza inzuzo esikhundleni sokukhuluma iqiniso ngokufihla imininingwane ye-FAA mayelana nokusebenza kwendiza yabo i-737 Max kanye nomzamo wokuvala ukukhohlisa kwabo. Lesi sinqumo senza i-Boeing iphendule ngokungaziphathi kahle kwabasebenzi bayo, ikhuluma ngomthelela wezezimali kumakhasimende endiza yakwa-Boeing, futhi ngethemba lokuthi izohlinzeka ngezinga elithile lesinxephezelo emindenini yabahlomulile kanye nabahlomulayo.”    

Izitatimende Ezidukisayo, Namaqiniso Ayingxenye

"Izitatimende ezidukisayo, amaqiniso angaphelele, nokushiwoyo okwaziswa abasebenzi beBoeing ku-FAA kuvimbe amandla kahulumeni okuqinisekisa ukuphepha komphakathi ondizayo," kusho uMmeli wase-US u-Erin Nealy Cox weSifunda esiseNyakatho neTexas. "Leli cala lithumela umyalezo ocacile: UMnyango wezoBulungiswa uzokwenza ukuthi abakhiqizi abanjengoBoeing baphendule ngokukhwabanisa abalawuli - ikakhulukazi ezimbonini lapho izibalo ziphakeme kangaka." 

"Isivumelwano sokushushisa esihlehlisiwe sanamuhla senza i-Boeing nabasebenzi bayo baphendule ngokungagwegwesi kwabo ne-FAA mayelana ne-MCAS," kusho u-Special Agent Ophethe u-Emmerson Buie Jr. we-FBI's Chicago Field Office.

“Izinhlawulo ezinkulu kanye nesinxephezelo iBoeing izokhokha, kukhombisa imiphumela yokwehluleka ukubeka obala ngokugcwele nabalawuli bakahulumeni. Umphakathi kufanele ube nesiqiniseko sokuthi abalawuli bakahulumeni bawenza ngempumelelo umsebenzi wabo, futhi labo ababalawulayo baneqiniso futhi bangafihli lutho.”

“Sisaqhubeka nokulila kanye nemindeni, abathandekayo nabangane babantu abangu-346 abashone ku-Lion Air Flight 610 kanye ne-Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302.

Isivumelwano sokushushiswa esihlehlisiwe esifinyelelwe namuhla ne-The Boeing Company siwumphumela wokuzinikela kweHhovisi Lomhloli Jikelele nabalingani bethu bokugcinwa komthetho nabashushisi,” kusho i-Special Agent Ephethe u-Andrea M. Kropf, Ihhovisi Lomhloli Jikelele woMnyango Wezokuthutha (DOT- OIG) Isifunda Esimaphakathi Nentshonalanga.

"Lesi sivumelwano sokushushiswa esihlehlisiwe siyingqopha-mlando sizosebenza njengesikhumbuzo esiqinile sokubaluleka okuphambili kokuphepha embonini yezohwebo yezindiza, nokuthi ubuqotho nokungafihli lutho kungase kudedelwe ukuze kusebenze kahle noma kuzuze inzuzo."

Njengoba i-Boeing ivuma emaphepheni asenkantolo, i-Boeing—ngabashayeli bayo ababili be-737 MAX Flight Technical Pilots—ikhohlise i-FAA AEG mayelana nengxenye ebalulekile yendiza ebizwa ngokuthi i-Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System (MCAS) ethinte uhlelo lokulawula indiza ye-Boeing 737 MAX.

Ngenxa yokukhohlisa kwabo, idokhumenti eyinhloko eshicilelwe yi-FAA AEG yayintula ulwazi mayelana ne-MCAS, futhi, izincwadi zezindiza nezinto zokuqeqesha umshayeli wezindiza ezizinze e-U.S. zazintula ulwazi mayelana ne-MCAS.

IBoeing yaqala ukuthuthukisa nokumaketha i-737 MAX ngoJuni 2011 noma cishe ngawo. Ngaphambi kokuthi noma iyiphi inkampani yezindiza yase-US isebenzise i-737 MAX entsha, imithethonqubo yase-US ibifuna i-FAA ukuthi ihlole iphinde ivume indiza ukuthi isetshenziselwe ukuhweba.

Mayelana nale nqubo, i-FAA AEG yayinomthwalo omkhulu wokunquma izinga elincane lokuqeqeshwa komshayeli odingekayo ukuze umshayeli andize i-737 MAX yenkampani yezindiza ezinze e-U.S., ngokusekelwe kumvelo nezinga lomehluko phakathi kwe-737 MAX kanye inguqulo yangaphambili yendiza ye-Boeing 737, i-737 Next Generation (NG).

Ekuphetheni kwalokhu kuhlola, i-FAA AEG ishicilele umbiko we-737 MAX Flight Standardization Board Report (FSB Report), owawuqukethe ulwazi olufanele mayelana nezingxenye ezithile zendiza namasistimu okwakudingeka ukuthi i-Boeing ikuhlanganise kumamanuwali endiza kanye nezinto zokuqeqesha umshayeli wazo zonke i-U.S.- izindiza ezisekelwe.

Umbiko we-737 MAX FSB nawo wawuqukethe ukunqunywa kokuqeqeshwa komehluko kwe-FAA AEG. Ngemuva kokushicilelwa kombiko we-737 MAX FSB, amakhasimende endiza yakwaBoeing avunyelwe ukundiza i-737 MAX.

Ngaphakathi kwe-Boeing, i-737 MAX Flight Technical Team (eyakhiwe ngama-737 MAX Flight Technical Pilots) yayinomthwalo omkhulu wokuhlonza kanye nokuhlinzeka i-FAA AEG yonke imininingwane eyayihlobene ne-FAA AEG mayelana nokushicilelwa kwe-FAA AEG kwe-737 MAX FSB. Bika.

Ngenxa yokuthi izilawuli zendiza bezibalulekile ekundizeni izindiza zesimanjemanje, umehluko phakathi kwezilawuli zendiza engu-737 NG kanye ne-737 MAX ububaluleke kakhulu ku-FAA AEG ngenhloso yokushicilelwa kombiko we-737 MAX FSB kanye nesinqumo sokuqeqeshwa komehluko se-FAA AEG. .

Ngasekupheleni kukaNovemba 2016, ababili babashayeli bezindiza be-Boeing 737 MAX Flight Technical Pilots, omunye ngaleso sikhathi owayeyi-737 MAX Chief Technical Pilot futhi omunye owayezoba ngu-737 MAX Chief Technical Pilot, bathola ulwazi mayelana noshintsho olubalulekile ku-MCAS.

Kunokwabelana ngolwazi mayelana nalolu shintsho ne-FAA AEG, ngalaba bashayeli bezindiza ababili be-737 MAX Flight Technical Pilots.

I-Boeing ifihle lolu lwazi futhi yakhohlisa i-FAA AEG mayelana ne-MCAS.

Ngenxa yale nkohliso, i-FAA AEG isuse lonke ulwazi mayelana ne-MCAS enguqulweni yokugcina yombiko we-737 MAX FSB oshicilelwe ngoJulayi 2017.

Ngokulandelayo, amamanuwali endiza nezinto zokuqeqesha abashayeli bezindiza ezizinze e-U.S. zazintula ulwazi mayelana ne-MCAS, futhi abashayeli bezindiza abandiza i-737 MAX kumakhasimende endiza ye-Boeing abanikezwanga noma yiluphi ulwazi mayelana ne-MCAS kumamanuwali wabo nezinto zokuqeqesha. 

I-Lion Air Crash

Ngo-Okthoba 29, 2018, i-Lion Air Flight 610, i-Boeing 737 MAX, yaphahlazeka ngemva nje kokusuka olwandle i-Java eduze ne-Indonesia. Bonke abagibeli abangu-189 nabasebenzi abebesesikebheni bashonile.

Ngemuva kokuphahlazeka kwe-Lion Air, i-FAA AEG ithole ukuthi i-MCAS yenziwe yasebenza phakathi nendiza futhi kungenzeka ibambe iqhaza ekuphahlazekeni.

I-FAA AEG iphinde yafunda okokuqala ngoshintsho lwe-MCAS, okuhlanganisa ulwazi mayelana ne-MCAS u-Boeing ayifihle ku-FAA AEG.

Khonamanjalo, ngenkathi uphenyo ngokuphahlazeka kwe-Lion Air luqhubeka, abashayeli bezindiza ababili be-737 MAX Flight Technical baqhubekile nokudukisa abanye—okuhlanganisa i-Boeing ne-FAA—mayelana nolwazi lwabo lwangaphambili loshintsho lwe-MCAS.

Ukuphahlazeka kwe-Ethiopian Air

NgoMashi 10, 2019, i-Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302, i-Boeing 737 MAX, yaphahlazeka ngemuva nje kokusuka eduze kwase-Ejere, e-Ethiopia. Bonke abagibeli abangu-157 nabasebenzi abebesesikebheni bashonile.

Ngemuva kokuphahlazeka kwe-Ethiopian Airlines, i-FAA AEG ithole ukuthi i-MCAS yenziwe yasebenza phakathi nendiza futhi kungenzeka ibe neqhaza ekuphahlazekeni. NgoMashi 13, 2019, i-737 MAX yamiswa ngokusemthethweni e-U.S., yamisa unomphela ezinye izindiza zale ndiza nganoma iyiphi inkampani yezindiza ezinze e-U.S.

I-Boeing izosebenzisana noMnyango Wokukhwabanisa

Njengengxenye ye-DPA, i-Boeing ivumile, phakathi kwezinye izinto, ukuqhubeka nokusebenzisana neSigaba Sokukhwabanisa kunoma yiluphi uphenyo oluqhubekayo noma oluzayo kanye nokushushiswa.

Njengengxenye yokubambisana kwayo, i-Boeing idingeka ukuthi ibike noma ibuphi ubufakazi noma izinsolo zokwephulwa kwemithetho yokukhwabanisa yase-U.S. eyenziwe abasebenzi be-Boeing noma ama-ejenti kunoma iyiphi i-ejensi kahulumeni yasekhaya noma yangaphandle (okuhlanganisa i-FAA), umlawuli, nanoma imaphi amakhasimende endiza ye-Boeing.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, i-Boeing ivumile ukuqinisa uhlelo lwayo lokuthobela umthetho kanye nokuthuthukisa izimfuneko zokubika zohlelo lokuhambisana, ezidinga ukuthi i-Boeing ihlangabezane neSigaba Sokukhwabanisa okungenani njalo ngekota futhi ithumele imibiko yaminyaka yonke Ophikweni Lokukhwabanisa mayelana nesimo semizamo yayo yokulungisa, imiphumela. kokuhlolwa kwayo kohlelo lwayo lokuthobela imithetho, kanye neziphakamiso zayo zokuqinisekisa ukuthi uhlelo lwayo lokuthobela luklanywe ngendlela efanele, lusetshenziswa, futhi luyaphoqelelwa ukuze lusebenze kahle ekuvimbeni nasekutholeni ukwephulwa kwemithetho yokukhwabanisa yase-U.S. mayelana nokusebenzisana nanoma iyiphi i-ejensi kahulumeni wasekhaya noma wangaphandle. (kuhlanganise ne-FAA), isilawuli, nanoma yimaphi amakhasimende ayo endiza.

Umnyango ufinyelele lesi sinqumo nge-Boeing ngokusekelwe ezintweni ezimbalwa, okuhlanganisa uhlobo nobucayi bokuziphatha kwecala; Ukwehluleka kuka-Boeing ukudalula ngesikhathi kanye nangokuzithandela ukuziphatha kobugebengu emnyangweni; kanye nomlando wangaphambili we-Boeing, okuhlanganisa nesivumelwano sokukhokhelana i-FAA kusukela ngo-2015 esihlobene nezindaba zokuphepha kanye nekhwalithi ephathelene neyunithi yebhizinisi ye-Boeing's Commercial Airplanes (BCA).

Ngaphezu kwalokho, nakuba ukubambisana kuka-Boeing ekugcineni kuhlanganisa ukuhlonza ngokuzithandela nangokuqhubekayo eSigabeni Sokukhwabanisa imibhalo okungenzeka ibalulekile kanye nofakazi be-Boeing, kanye nokuhlela ngokuzithandela ubufakazi obucacile bokuthi i-Boeing yayinesibopho sokukhiqiza, ukubambisana okunjalo, nokho, kwabambezeleka futhi kwaqala kuphela ngemva kwezinyanga eziyisithupha zokuqala. ophenyweni lweSigaba Sokukhwabanisa, ngaleso sikhathi impendulo ye-Boeing yaphazamisa uphenyo lweSigaba Sokukhwabanisa.

Umnyango uphinde wabheka ukuthi i-Boeing yazibandakanya nezinyathelo zokulungisa ngemuva kokuziphatha kwecala, okuhlanganisa: 

(i) ukudala ikomidi elihlala njalo lezokuphepha emkhathini leBhodi Labaqondisi ukuze lengamele izinqubomgomo nezinqubo ze-Boeing ezilawula ukuphepha kanye nokusebenzisana kwayo ne-FAA nezinye izinhlaka zikahulumeni nabalawuli;

(ii) ukudala inhlangano Yokuphepha Komkhiqizo Nezinsizakalo ukuze kuqiniswe futhi kubekwe endaweni eyodwa imisebenzi ehlobene nokuphepha eyayitholakala kuyo yonke i-Boeing;

(iii) ukuhlela kabusha umsebenzi wobunjiniyela be-Boeing ukuze bonke onjiniyela be-Boeing, kanye ne-Flight Technical Team ye-Boeing, babike ngonjiniyela omkhulu wakwa-Boeing kunokuba baye ezinyunithi zebhizinisi; futhi

(iv) ukwenza izinguquko zesakhiwo kuQembu Lezobuchwepheshe Lendiza ye-Boeing ukuze kwandiswe ukugadwa, ukusebenza kahle, kanye nobungcweti babashayeli bezindiza be-Flight Technical Pilots be-Boeing, okuhlanganisa ukuhambisa iQembu Lezobuchwepheshe Lendiza ye-Boeing ngaphansi kwesambulela senhlangano esifanayo neThimba Lokuhlola Indiza ye-Boeing, kanye nokwamukela izinqubomgomo nezinqubo ezintsha kanye siqhuba ukuqeqeshwa ukuze sicacise okulindelekile nezimfuneko ezilawula ukuxhumana phakathi kwabashayeli bezindiza be-Flight Technical be-Boeing neziphathimandla zokulawula, okuhlanganisa ngokukhethekile i-FAA AEG.

I-Boeing iphinde yenza izinguquko ezibalulekile ebuholini bayo obuphezulu kusukela lelo cala lenzekile.

Umnyango ekugcineni unqume ukuthi umqaphi wokuthobela ozimele ubengadingekile ngokusekelwe ezintweni ezilandelayo, phakathi kwezinye:

(i) ukungaziphathi kahle akuzange kusabalele enhlanganweni yonke, noma kwenziwe inqwaba yabasebenzi, noma kwenziwe ngabaphathi abakhulu;

(ii) nakuba ababili babashayeli bezindiza be-Boeing 737 MAX Flight Technical bakhohlisa i-FAA AEG mayelana ne-MCAS ngendlela yezitatimende ezidukisayo, amaqiniso angaphelele, kanye nokweqiwa, abanye ku-Boeing badalule ububanzi bokusebenza obunwetshiwe be-MCAS kubasebenzi abahlukene be-FAA ababenomthwalo wemfanelo wokunquma ukuthi I-737 MAX ihlangabezane namazinga e-US federal airworthiness;

(iii) isimo sokulungisa i-Boeing ohlelweni lwayo lokuthobela kanye nokulawula kwangaphakathi; futhi

(iv) Isivumelwano se-Boeing sokuthuthukisa izimfuneko zokubika zokuthobela uhlelo, njengoba kuchazwe ngenhla.

Amahhovisi enkambu eChicago eFBI kanye neDOT-OIG aphenye leli cala, ngosizo lwamanye amahhovisi ezinkundla zeFBI nawakwaDOT-OIG.

Abameli Becala u-Cory E. Jacobs no-Scott Armstrong, Umsizi Omkhulu u-Michael T. O’Neill Wesigaba Sokukhwabanisa, kanye Nomsizi Wommeli Wase-U.S. u-Chad E. Meacham wase-Northern District yase-Texas bashushisa leli cala.

I-Boeing izobe igwema izinhlawulo zobugebengu uma ilandela yonke imihlahlandlela yezokuphepha iminyaka ngaphandle kwamaphutha amasha.

INGXOXO ETHABISAYO no-Paul Hudson: Kungani i-Boeing 737 Max ingaphephile

Paul Hudson kusukela eblackbeights.org engxoxweni no eTurboNews eminyakeni emithathu edlule yabikezela ukuthi i-B737 Max yayingakaphephile.


WTNJOYINA | eTurboNews | eTN

(eTN): I-Boeing Banks Embuthweni Wezempi wase-US ngemuva Kokuhluleka kwe-B737 Max | thumela kabusha ilayisensi okuqukethwe okuthunyelwe


 

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UJuergen T Steinmetz

UJuergen Thomas Steinmetz ubelokhu esebenza ngokuqhubekayo embonini yezokuvakasha nezokuvakasha kusukela esemusha eJalimane (1977).
Wasungula eTurboNews ngo-1999 njengencwajana yokuqala ye-inthanethi embonini yezokuvakasha yezokuvakasha emhlabeni jikelele.

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